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Philippine Eagle Sinabadan

Read and learn more about Sinabadan's journey. 

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empaen guimanon

Empaen is a collective term for all the resources found within our ancestral domain. Guimanon, on the other hand, means “hope”. Together, Empaen Guimanon refer to all the natural resources we have inside the ancestral domain as natural treasures that brings hope for a better life to all Bagobo Tagabawa residents of the present and the future. These precious resources include plants and animals that we utilize as food, and traditional medicines that can be found in the forests.

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Caring For Pusaka 

The Indigenous Obu Manuvu nation was cared for and nourished by the forests. As the occupants of the few remaining forests at Mt. Apo, we offer our lives and our sincerest cultural ways in protecting nature and our natural resources. The environment is our life. The forest is the home of our culture and faith; it is the seat of our survival. The Pusaka is a long-standing practice of sanctifying items, animals, and lands — all that are considered valuable to our life and history.

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Records of the Northern Sierra Madre Forest Corridor Varanus bitatawa from the Northern Cordillera Mountain Range of Luzon Island, Philippines

The Northern Sierra Madre Forest Monitor Varanus bitatawa is a large-bodied, arboreal and frugivorous monitor lizard thought to be restricted only to forests of the northern and central Sierra Madre range on the island of Luzon, Philippines. 

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Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development as they see it

Community-based conservation has become the hallmark of a country-wide effort to save Philippine biodiversity. Despite a number of criticisms against it, programs where rural people are an integral component of conservation have yet to be implemented in earnest. Using a community-based conservation program with the Indigenous Manobo-Tinananon of Arakan, North Cotabato, evidence is provided that partnerships could indeed supply tangible benefits toward achieving sustainable rural development and clear conservation outcomes. 

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Taxonomy and Natural History of the Southeast Asian Fruit-Bat Genus Dyacopterus

The pteropodid genus Dyacopterus Andersen, 1912, comprises several medium-sized fruit-bat species endemic to forested areas of Sundaland and the Philippines. Specimens of Dyacopterus are sparsely represented in collections of world museums, which has hindered resolution of species limits within the genus. Based on our studies of most available museum material, we review the infrageneric taxonomy of Dyacopterus using craniometric and other comparisons.

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A Philippine Eagle's Tale

The IUCN “critically endangered” Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) population has declined due to two reasons — massive destruction of the Philippine tropical forests, and the hunting and shooting of its kind. Because every individual top forest predator is precious, the Philippine Eagle Foundation (PEF), an NGO helping to save the country’s national bird from extinction, rescues injured eagles and restores their health. Birds that recover are then released back to protected forests where they can potentially breed and add offspring to the already very small wild population.

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Dispersal of Philippine Eagles Released in the Forests of Mindanao, Philippines

The Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) is critically endangered (IUCN 2014). Because of hunting and deforestation, their population has significantly declined, with an estimated ,400 eagle pairs left in the entire country (Bueser et al. 2003, Salvador and Iban ̃ez 2006). Studies suggest that survival and dispersal of juveniles and sub- adults may be an important factor contributing to the decline of this species (Miranda et al. 2000).

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Notes on the Diet of Philippine Eagle Sinaka

We documented the breeding behavior and diet of a Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) pair from July 1999 to January 2000 in an isolated forest in Central Mindanao.

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First Nesting Record of Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi from Luzon, Philippines, with notes on diet and Breeding Biology

The Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi is one of the world’s largest forest eagles and is known to occur only on the Philippine islands of Luzon, Leyte, Samar and Mindanao (BirdLife International 2016). Since its discovery (Ogilvie-Grant 1897), most studies pertaining to the biology of the species have been focused on Mindanao.

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Preventing Philippine Eagle Hunting: What are we missing?

Two of pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species- (i) and estimate of its remaining globa population and (ii) the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggesst that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing the decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factors while forest habitat loss is another, This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in the Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle's wild population exists.  

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Summary of Reproductive Success

A compilation of all existing information on the reproductive success of the Philippine Eagles based on published (Kennedy 1985) and unpublished documents gathered by the Philippine Eagle Foundation (PEF) between 1978-98. 

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Distribution and nesting density of the Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi on Mindanao Island, Philippines: what do we know after 100 years?

The Philippine Eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi is a large forest raptor considered to be one of the three most critically endangered eagles in the world (Bildstein et al . 1998, Collar et al . 1999). The species was first discovered in 1896 (Ogilvie-Grant 1896, 1897 [published in The Ibis ]). The eagles are not particularly secretive or shy, and in fact can be rather conspicuous, especially when flying or vocalizing during the breeding season. But they are widely dispersed, uncommon, and usually located in steep terrain and heavy forest where visibility and accessibility are limited.

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Notes on the Breeding Behavior of a Philippine Eagle Pair at Mount Sinaka, Central Mindanao

A complete breeding cycle in this species lasts two years, and successful pairs produce a single offspring (Gonzales 1968, Kennedy 1985). Since the detailed work by Kennedy (1977, 1985) on Philippine Eagle nesting biology, there have been few studies on the behavior and ecology of this species. Recently, new information on the eagles’ breeding success (Miranda et al. 2000) and nesting density and population estimates for Mindanao Island (Bueser et al. 2003) have been published. This study describes the prey as well as the behavior of a pair of Philippine Eagles nesting in a relict forest in Central Mindanao, Philippines. This initial attempt to quantify activity patterns of a pair in an isolated forest habitat is relevant in the light of continued forest fragmentation in the Philippines, where the behavioral responses of Philippine Eagles to a shrinking habitat remain unknown.

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Ecology and conservation of Philippine Eagles

In the short term, we believe hunting is a major and deadly threat to the species. Out of 11 eagles recovered since 1999, seven sustained gunshot wounds, three were trapped using improvised snares and one nestling was stolen from a nest. Two of these birds did not survive. There are probably more incidents of hunting and trapping that remain unreported. Human persecution can be devastating to a species already on the edge of extinction. Species may be lost altogether even though suitable habitat still remains. But unlike habitat loss, which requires solutions that encompass several generations, hunting and other forms of persecution is a behavioral problem that is reversible in human time scale.

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Holistic Strategies to save the Philippine Eagle

The population status of the Philippine eagle is alarming. Habitat and probably prey population are continuing to disappear at a rapid rate. Deforestation in the Philippines es estimated at 190,000 ha/yr. The United States Agency for International Development(USAID) indicated that only 7,000 ha of primary dipterocarp forest remain (USAID 1989). Without places to live and forest to survive, the species could rapidly become extinct.

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On March 24, 2008, the PEF team temporarily withdrew from tracking and monitoring a recently released Philippine Eagle (Kagsabua) in Sumilao, Bukidnon to rescue a captive juvenile Philippine Eagle in San Isidro, a small community in Kalabugao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. This community is about three hours drive from Malaybalay City, the province's capital.

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Overall, the bird has a good prognosis. It was able to stretch its wings, stand normally, bright, alert and responsive.

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Kalabugao has been in the wild for 23 months now and her new GPS unit has been on her since April, 2011 (5 months). Interestingly, Kalabugao has been moving around in a rather gradual manner, with the aerial distance of her GPS locations for two successive days not exceeding 2 km on the average.

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Rehabilitated Philippine Eagle "Kalabugao" was released into the wild together with captive-bred eagle "Hineleban" last October 29, 2009. She was at the hack site in Lupiagan Sumilao, Bukidnon for 34 days before she was released to the lush forest of Mount Kitanglad. Kalabugao stayed within the head waters of Kulaman river north east of the hack site and within the vicinity of the peak for two months. On February 2010, she began to move downstream along Kulaman river. She was never dependent on supplemental food and is now actively hunting. This report highlights field monitoring results since October 2009 until the first week of March 2010. It also describes the first documentation of two successful hunts by Kalabugao in February 2010.

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On December 21, 2014, a farmer trapped here after she allegedly hunted a domestic pig. The farmer reportedly used half of the pig's carcass as trap bait which the eagle left behind after feeding. The bird was rescued by DENR and LGU Manolo Fortich, and was later turned over to PEF for examination, and rehabilitation, if needed. After further tests and medication, she was cleared for release. This report highlights the results of pre-release, release and post-release monitoring activities for Philippine Eagle "Kalabugao" from March 31- April 7, 2015.

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Captive individuals of endangered Philippine raptors maintain native feather mites (Acariformes: Pterolichoidea) species

Endangered species of hosts are coupled with endangered species of parasites, which share the risk of co-extinction. Conservation efforts sometimes include breeding of rare species in captivity. Data on parasites of captive populations of endangered species is scarce and the ability of small numbers of captive host individuals to support the biodiversity of native parasites is limited. Examination of ectosymbionts of the critically endangered Philippine eagles and the endangered Mindanao Hawk-Eagle kept at the Philippine Eagle Center, Philippines, revealed three feather mite species despite regular treatment with insecticide powder. No other ectosymbiont taxa were detected.

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A new species of Batomys (Mammalia: Muridae) from eastern Mindanao Island, Philippines

Murid rodents of the endemic genus Batomys are diverse and geographically widely distributed in the Philippines. Four species have been recognized: B. dentatus and B. granti on Luzon, B. salomonseni on several islands comprising the Mindanao faunal region, and B. russatus on Dinagat Island. A recent survey of small mammals in eastern Mindanao recorded the presence of Batomys on Mt. Hamiguitan, the only other documented occurrence of this genus on Mindanao Island outside of Mt. Kitanglad.

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Philippine Eagle Center

Malagos, Baguio District,

Davao City, 8018

+63 917 708 9084

+63 82 324 1860

© 2019 Philippine Eagle Foundation

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